Brewers Yeast is a flaky substance that is a by-product of beer making and is very similar to nutritional yeast. It is added as a supplement to food to increase its nutritional value. It mostly contains B vitamins, which can be lacking in a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as also containing chromium, selenium and magnesium. It is usually available in health food stores. It is less palatable than nutritional yeast.
Chia seeds are from the Salvia Hispanica plant and are a good source of fiber, protein and minerals and most notably, omega-3 fatty acids. They may be eaten whole, unlike flax seeds, that need to be eaten ground for their nutrition. For 1 egg substitute, add 1 tablespoon of chia seeds to 3 tablespoons of water and let sit for about 5 minutes.
The seed of the common flax plant. The seeds and oil are a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid and omega-3 fatty acids. Flax seeds need to be consumed ground to obtain their nutritional value. They are often used as a substitute for eggs when mixed with water.
Jack fruit is actually a fruit and the largest in the world. Its unique quality of being shreddable lends itself to being a meat replacement. Most often found canned, the best to purchase is the version that is young, green & in water, You can find it in Asian grocery stores or online. If you find a fresh jack fruit, don't buy the ripe version because it's too sweet. Jackfruit has a core, much like a pineapple and large seeds that need to be removed before cooking unless the seeds are tender. It's usually marinated to bring out the flavor on the dish you're preparing.
Macronutrients are the three main components of food: carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
Micronutrients are essential for good health and are different from macronutrients which are carbohydrates, proteins and fats. They are the smaller bits that make up our food such as vitamins and minerals, and which our cells depend on for optimal function. Micronutrient deficiencies can cause serious health problems.
Miso is a paste made from fermented soybeans and barley or rice malt. It is traditionally used in Japanese cooking and also added to vegetarian or vegan meals as a flavor enhancer. It can be found in the refrigerator section of your health food or Japanese store.
Nutritional Yeast: Nutritional Yeast is a flaky, almost cheesy tasting substance that is grown on molasses. It is usually added to food as a supplement to increase its nutritional value. While it does contain B vitamins and magnesium, it is not a good source of selenium or chromium like Brewers Yeast. It is usually available in health food stores. It may also be called nooch.
Seitan: Seitan is high in protein, low in carbs, and is made from the gluten part of wheat. It is very similar to meat when cooked. It is found in the refrigerator section of most health food stores. Learn about cooking with seitan here.
Used as a meat substitute, soy curls are gluten-free and are made from the whole soy bean. They are organic, preservative free and are dried. Upon rehydration, soy curls resemble chicken. They can be found in most Whole Foods Markets or at other locations.
A Middle Eastern paste or sauce made from ground sesame seeds. It is usually found in the aisle with the nut butters.
Tempeh is made from cooked and slightly fermented soybeans and formed into a patty, similar to a very firm veggie burger. Many commercially prepared brands add other grains, such as barley, and also add spices and extra flavors. Although tempeh is made from soy, it has a unique taste and is mildly flavorful on it's own, unlike tofu. It is found in the refrigerator section of most health food stores. Learn about cooking with tempeh here.
Vital Wheat Gluten:
Vital wheat gluten is made from gluten and is a powdered form of the protein in wheat without any starches. It is used to make seitan (say-tan), but they cannot be used interchangeably. It is also used as a binding agent for breads, burgers, or loaves. It can be purchased from specialty or health food stores or online.
A nutritarian diet contains highly nutritious foods with a high percentage of micronutrients. A nutritarian does not exclusively eat plant foods, but eats a lot of high-nutrient, natural plant foods: vegetables, fruits, beans, nuts and seeds, eats fewer animal products and chooses healthier options in this food group. Eats much less or almost no foods that are completely empty of nutrients or are toxic for the body, such as sugar, sweeteners, white flour, processed foods and greasy fast foods. The term was originated by Dr. Joel Fuhrman.
A plant-based diet includes an abundance of FRESH FRUITS and VEGETABLES, LEGUMES, WHOLE GRAINS, NUTS and SEEDS, but NO DAIRY or EGGS and very little or NO MEAT or PROCESSED OIL.
A vegetarian diet is the practice of following a plant-based diet (fruits, vegetables, etc.), with or without the inclusion of dairy products or eggs, and with the exclusion of meat. Abstention from by-proucts of animals, may also be practiced
A vegan diet does not include any meat, fish, poultry or dairy and often does not include use of other animal by-products such as honey, leather, fur, silk, wool, or cosmetics. A vegan diet might include dairy or meat substitutes like soy cheese and tofu granules.